Command control for functional electrical stimulation hand grasp systems using miniature accelerometers and gyroscopes.

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Abstract

Recent commercially available miniature sensors have the potential to improve the functions of functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems in terms of control, reliability and robustness. A new control approach using a miniature gyroscope and an accelerometer was studied. These sensors were used to detect the linear acceleration and angular velocity of residual voluntary movements on upper limbs and were small and easy to put on. Five healthy subjects and three cervical spinal cord injured subjects were recruited to evaluate this controller. Sensors were placed on four locations: the shoulder, upper arm, wrist and hand. A quick forward-and-backward movement was employed to produce a distinctive waveform that was different from general movements. A detection algorithm was developed to generate a command signal by identifying this distinctive waveform through the detection of peaks and valleys in the sensor's signals. This command signal was used to control different FES hand grasp patterns. With a specificity of 0.9, the sensors had a success rate of 85-100% on healthy subjects and 82-97% on spinal cord injured subjects. In terms of sensor placement, the gyroscope was better as a control source than the accelerometer for wrist and hand positions, but the reverse was true for the shoulder.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Adult
  • Algorithms
  • Cervical Vertebrae
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy/*methods
  • Hand Strength*
  • Humans
  • Motion
  • Paraplegia/*rehabilitation
  • Spinal Cord Injuries/*rehabilitation

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Authors

  • Tong KY; Mak AF; Ip WY

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