The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between female feet and last design. Four hundred twenty-four feet and four men's running shoe lasts (U.S. women 6.0-9.5), which also are used for the manufacturing of women's shoes, were scanned in three dimensions. Six foot measures were quantified. Different foot types were classified using a cluster analysis. Comparisons were made between last measures and averaged as well as foot type specific foot measures. Differences in width measures between lasts and foot types vary substantially (0-9 mm). Length grading is similar for lasts and feet (differences < 1mm). Width grading is larger in lasts in comparison with average grading in feet (3.5-5.9 mm). Last design and grading should account for the sex-specific allometry in foot measures. The use of down-graded men's lasts for women's shoes has to be questioned. Therefore, sex-specific reference measures and wear tests should incorporate different foot types in different sizes to allow suitable implications for a proper design and grading of lasts.
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