Seven models for computing underwater radiances and irradiances by numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation are compared. The models are applied to the solution of several problems drawn from optical oceanography. The problems include highly absorbing and highly scattering waters, scattering by molecules and by particulates, stratified water, atmospheric effects, surface-wave effects, bottom effects, and Raman scattering. The models provide consistent output, with errors (resulting from Monte Carlo statistical fluctuations) in computed irradiances that are seldom larger, and are usually smaller, than the experimental errors made in measuring irradiances when using current oceanographic instrumentation. Computed radiances display somewhat larger errors.
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