Comparison and predictors of rash associated with 15 antiepileptic drugs

  • Arif H
  • Buchsbaum R
  • Weintraub D
 et al. 
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors and relative incidence of antiepileptic drug (AED)-related rash in patients taking all common AEDs. METHODS: We reviewed 1,890 outpatients. Eighty-one variables were tested as potential predictors of rash. We compared the rate of rash attributed to each AED (AED rash) with the average rate of rash attributed to the other AEDs in all adults (aged > or =16 years; n = 1,649) when taking carbamazepine (CBZ), clobazam (CLB), felbamate (FBM), gabapentin (GBP), lamotrigine (LTG), levetiracetam (LEV), oxcarbazepine (OXC), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), primidone (PRM), tiagabine (TGB), topiramate (TPM), vigabatrin (VGB), valproate (VPA), or zonisamide (ZNS). We repeated this analysis for patients with and without the identified nondrug predictors of AED rash. RESULTS: The average rate of AED rash was 2.8%. The only nondrug predictor significant in multivariate analysis was occurrence of another AED rash (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 1.8 to 5.1; p < 0.0001); the rate of rash in this subgroup was 8.8%, vs 1.7% in those without another AED rash. Higher AED rash rates were seen with PHT (5.9% overall, p = 0.0008; 25.0% in those with another AED rash, p = 0.001), LTG (4.8%, p = 0.00095; 14.4%, p = 0.025), and CBZ (3.7%, not significant; 16.5%, p = 0.01). Lower rates were seen with LEV (0.6% overall; p = 0.00042), GBP (0.3%, p = 0.00035), and VPA (0.7%, p = 0.01). Rash rates were also low (

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Authors

  • H. Arif

  • R. Buchsbaum

  • D. Weintraub

  • S. Koyfman

  • C. Salas-Humara

  • C. W. Bazil

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