This paper presents an algorithm for calibrating erroneous tri-axis magnetometers in the magnetic field domain. Unlike existing algorithms, no simplification is made on the nature of errors to ease the estimation. A complete error model, including instrumentation errors (scale factors, nonorthogonality, and offsets) and magnetic deviations (soft and hard iron) on the host platform, is elaborated. An adaptive least squares estimator provides a consistent solution to the ellipsoid fitting problem and the magnetometer's calibration parameters are derived. The calibration is experimentally assessed with two artificial magnetic perturbations introduced close to the sensor on the host platform and without additional perturbation. In all configurations, the algorithm successfully converges to a good estimate of the said errors. Comparing the magnetically derived headings with a GNSS/INS reference, the results show a major improvement in terms of heading accuracy after the calibration.
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