Transplantation of pronuclei between one-cell-stage embryos was used to construct diploid mouse embryos with two female pronuclei (biparental gynogenones) or two male pronuclei (biparental androgenones). The ability of these embryos to develop to term was compared with control nuclear-transplant embryos in which the male or the female pronucleus was replaced with an isoparental pronucleus from another embryo. The results show that diploid biparental gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos do not complete normal embryogenesis, whereas control nuclear transplant embryos do. We conclude that the maternal and paternal contributions to the embryonic genome in mammals are not equivalent and that a diploid genome derived from only one of the two parental sexes is incapable of supporting complete embryogenesis. © 1984.
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