The ability to retrieve the complex-valued, generalized pupil function of an imaging system from undersampled measurements of the defocused system point spread function (PSF) is examined through numerical simulations. The ability to do so degrades as the detector pixel pitch increases when using a fixed number of PSF measurements. Two strategies for obtaining better results with undersampled data are demonstrated using additional PSF measurements with (i) random shifts due to system pointing fluctuations and (ii) intermediate amounts of defocus.
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