Both in nature and in our current industri- alized society, we can discern complex, layered, and dynamic systems that interact with their en- vironment and perpetually affect one another. Over time, these systems evolve, and complex structures, such as the Amazonian rainforest or New York City, emerge. These systems are char- acterized by diversity, multiple interactions both within and between layers, feedback loops, and emergence—all characteristics that lead us to consider them as complex.
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