Lymphocele is a common surgical complication after renal transplantation. The incidence of lymphocele ranges from 0.6% to 18%. The aim of this study was to determine incidence, risk factors and prognosis of complicated lymphocele in the era of modern immunosuppression. We retrospectively reviewed 311 renal transplants from January 2003 to September 2008, we excluding patients who received sirolimus or underwent multiorgan transplantations. A complicated lymphocele was defined by the requirement for a surgical procedure for cure. Of the 311 transplant recipients, we included 269 in the study with 49 (18.9%) presenting a complicated lymphocele after transplantation. Cold ischemia time, waiting time on dialysis, gender, donor source, induction therapy (thymoglobulin vs basiliximab), and dialysis modality were similar between the 2 groups. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) doses were higher among the lymphocele than the nonlymphocele group (2.7 ± 0.54 g/d vs 2.36 ± 0.68 g/d; P < .05). However, the areas under the concentration-time curves of mycophenolic acid were not significally different between the 2 groups (43.7 ± 15.3 h · mg/L vs 48 ± 21 h · mg/L; P = .33). However, a multivariate analysis showed complicated lymphocele to be associated with greater MMF doses (odds ratio [OR] 2.75; P < .01), warm ischemia time (OR 1.035; P < .05), and recipient age (OR 1.04; P < .05). In conclusion, we identified high MMF doses as an independent risk factor for lymphocele formation after renal transplantation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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