An exchange of arguments between the advocates and critics of the difference scores provided a give-and-take avenue for discussion of the controversy. During the interaction, subjects of disagreement were revealed, some open issues were clarified and recommendations for future research were introduced. The forum showed that difference scores have become an intractable aspect of management research although its use is full of conceptual and methodological points of contention. It was made clear by the exchange of ideas that caution is much needed by researchers before they can side with a particular technique. Three unresolved issues regarding difference scores remain: whether or not difference scores are conceptually distinct from their components, whether or not intermediate submodels are appropriate, and whether or not present theories suit the higher-order response surfaces proposed by Edwards.
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