In this paper a new conformal array antenna of conical structure has been proposed. A conical phased array antenna can steer the radar beam electronically in both azimuth and elevation to cover a hemi-sphere mesh surrounding the radar antenna. Beam steering can be accomplished either continuously or discretely at definite directions. The proposed technique not only overcomes the limitations of mechanical steering systems and surveillance radar dead cone but also improves the radar tracking capability. Moreover, it is suitable to be used in MIMO radars and enemy deception systems. Element weights of the conical phased array antenna are optimized using a genetic algorithm (G.A). The optimization process improves the beam pattern peak side lobe level (PSLL) while maintaining a narrow beam width. A high resolution phase shifter and adaptive attenuator have been used for each element to acquire both the desired phase and optimum weight for conical array beam pattern. Beam pattern is simulated and tested using a Matlab Program. Improvement achieved in both antenna gain and PSLL are 18.8 and 8 dB respectively. There is a 6° tilting angle and 24° half power beam width.
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