Consensus sequences as substrate specificity determinants for protein kinases and protein phosphatases

  • Kennelly P
  • Krebs E
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Abstract

Protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (Ptprz) has multiple substrate proteins, including G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 1 (Git1), membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing 1 (Magi1), and GTPase-activating protein for Rho GTPase (p190RhoGAP). We have identified a dephosphorylation site at Tyr1105 of p190RhoGAP, however, the structural determinants employed for substrate recognition of Ptprz have not been fully defined. In the present study, we revealed that Ptprz selectively dephosphorylates Git1 at Tyr554, and Magi1 at Tyr373 and Tyr858 by in vitro and cell-based assays. Of note, the dephosphorylation of the Magi1-Tyr858 site required PDZ domain-mediated interaction between Magi1 and Ptprz in the cellular context. Alignment of the primary sequences surrounding the target phospho-tyrosine residue in these three substrates showed considerable similarity, suggesting a consensus motif for recognition by Ptprz. We then estimated the contribution of surrounding individual amino acid side chains to the catalytic efficiency by using fluorescent peptides based on the Git1 Tyr554 sequence in vitro. The typical substrate motif for the catalytic domain of Ptprz was deduced to be Glu/Asp-Glu/Asp-Glu/Asp-Xaa-Ile/Val-pTyr-Xaa (Xaa is not an acidic residue). Intriguingly, a Gly854Asp substitution of the Magi1-Tyr858 site matching better to the motif sequence turned this site to be susceptible to dephosphorylation by Ptprz independent of the PDZ domain-mediated interaction in cells. Furthermore, we found by database screening that the substrate motif is present in several proteins, including paxillin at Tyr118, its major phosphorylation site. Expectedly, we verified that Ptprz efficiently dephosphorylates paxillin at this site in cells. Our study thus provides key insights into the molecular basis for the substrate recognition of Ptprz.

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Authors

  • P. J. Kennelly

  • E. G. Krebs

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