Today, traditional full service is increasingly replaced with technology-based self-service (TBSS), sometimes with no other option for service delivery. This study develops a conceptual model to investigate the impact of forcing consumers to use TBSS. The model is tested using an experimental design within railway (ticketing and travel information) contexts. The results show that forced use leads to negative attitudes toward using the TBSS as well as toward the service provider, and it indirectly leads to adverse effects on behavioral intentions. The findings also show that offering interaction with an employee as a fall-back option offsets the negative consequences of forced use, and that previous experience with TBSS (in general) leads to more positive attitudes toward the offered self-service, which can offset the negative effects of forced use to some extent.
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