Purpose In healthy participants and those with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM), to (1) compare the acute 3-hour post-prandial response of glucose, insulin and other gastrointestinal hormones known to influence food intake and glucose metabolism after consumption of a food product made from whole grain buckwheat flour versus rice flour; (2) determine the effect of daily consumption of a food product made from whole grain buckwheat flour on fasting glucose, lipids and apolipoproteins. Methods Healthy participants or those with T2DM consumed either buckwheat or rice crackers. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after consumption. In a second phase of the study, participants consumed one serving of buckwheat crackers daily for 1 week; fasting blood samples from day 1 and day 7 were analyzed. Results Post-prandial plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and pancreatic polypeptide were altered after consuming buckwheat versus rice crackers. Interestingly, changes in these hormones did not lead to changes in post-prandial glucose, insulin or C-peptide concentrations. Significant correlations were observed between both fasting concentrations and post-prandial responses of several of the hormones examined. Interestingly, certain correlations were present only in the healthy participant group or the T2DM group. There was no effect of consuming buckwheat for one week on fasting glucose, lipids or apolipoproteins in either the healthy participants or those with T2DM. Conclusions Although the buckwheat cracker did not modify acute glycemia or insulinemia, it was sufficient to modulate gastrointestinal satiety hormones. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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