Controlling the work function of indium tin oxide: Differentiating dipolar from local surface effects

  • Schwartz J
  • Bruner E
  • Koch N
 et al. 
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Indium tin oxide (ITO) reacts with tetra(tert-butoxy)tin to give surface bound alkoxytin species. Ligand exchange occurs in these surface bound species by reaction with substituted phenols. The speciation of surface phenoxides was measured in ultrahigh vacuum by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as was the work function for the surface modified ITO. It is shown that the molecular dipole moment of the phenol correlates strongly with the measured ITO work function change; no such correlation exists between the acidity of the phenol and this measured change in work function. Results are consistent therefore with an electrostatic model and not with one involving electronegativities of the ligated phenoxide oxygens. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • ITO
  • Surface dipole
  • Surface modification

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  • Jeffrey Schwartz

  • Eric L. Bruner

  • Norbert Koch

  • Amelia R. Span

  • Antoine Kahn

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