Co-occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin a, fumonisins, and zearalenone in cereals and feed, determined by competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thin-layer chromatography

  • Klarić M
  • Cvetnić Z
  • Pepeljnjak S
 et al. 
  • 38


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 44


    Citations of this article.


Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species frequently contaminate crops. For this reason mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEA) are found in food and feed in a wide range of concentrations, depending on environmental and storage conditions. Consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed has been associated with acute and chronic poisoning and carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and co-occurrence of AFs (B1+B2+G1+G2), OTA, FBs (B1+B2+B3), and ZEA in 37 samples of cereals and feed randomly collected in 2007 from households of an endemic nephropathy (EN) area in Croatia. The mycotoxins were determined using the competitive direct ELISA test (CD-ELISA) in combination with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The most frequent mycotoxin was ZEA (92%, mean 318.3 microg kg-1), followed by FBs (27%, 3690 microg kg-1), AFs (24.3%, 4.6 microg kg-1), and OTA (16.2%, 9.8 microg kg-1). Levels of AFs, ZEA, and FBs detected by CD-ELISA significantly correlated with the TLC results. However, only one OTA-positive sample was confirmed by TLC due to its high limit of detection. The levels of these mycotoxins were below the permissible limit for animal feed. Twenty-nine percent of cereals were contaminated with FBs, OTA, or ZEA in mass fractions above the permissible limit for humans. Co-occurrence of two toxins varied between 4.2% and 54% and of three between 4.2% and 7.6%. Prolonged co-exposure to AFs, OTA, FBs, and ZEA might increase the risk of various chronic diseases.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Food contamination
  • Mycotoxin synergism
  • Mycotoxins
  • Natural carcinogens

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Get full text


  • Maja Šegvić Klarić

  • Zdenka Cvetnić

  • Stjepan Pepeljnjak

  • Ivan Kosalec

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free