This paper presents a vehicular positioning system in which multiple vehicles cooperatively calibrate their positions and recognize surrounding vehicles with their GPS receivers and ranging sensors. The proposed system operates in a distributed manner and works even if all vehicles nearby do not or cannot participate in the system. Each vehicle acquires various pieces of positioning information with different degrees of accuracies depending on the sources and recency of information, and compiles them based on likelihood derived from estimated accuracies to minimize estimation errors. A simulation based performance evaluation given in the paper shows that the proposed system improves the estimation accuracy by 85% on average with respect to the standalone GPS receiver, and recognizes about 70% surrounding vehicles with an error of 1m.
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