Background: Rotavirus gastroenteritis places a significant health and economic burden on Pakistan. To determine the public health impact of a national rotavirus vaccination program, we performed a cost-effectiveness study from the perspective of the health care system. Methods: A decision tree model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of a national vaccination program in Pakistan. Disease and cost burden with the program were compared to the current state. Disease parameters, vaccine-related costs, and medical treatment costs were based on published epidemiological and economic data, which were specific to Pakistan when possible. An annual birth cohort of children was followed for 5 years to model the public health impact of vaccination on health-related events and costs. The cost-effectiveness was assessed and quantified in cost (2012 US®) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted and cost per death averted. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results: The base case results showed vaccination prevented 1.2 million cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis, 93,000 outpatient visits, 43,000 hospitalizations, and 6700 deaths by 5 years of age for an annual birth cohort scaled from 6% current coverage to DPT3 levels (85%). The medical cost savings would be US®1.4 million from hospitalizations and US®200,000 from outpatient visit costs. The vaccination program would cost US®35 million at a vaccine price of US®5.00. The ICER was US®149.50 per DALY averted or US®4972 per death averted. Sensitivity analyses showed changes in case-fatality ratio, vaccine efficacy, and vaccine cost exerted the greatest influence on the ICER. Conclusions: Across a range of sensitivity analyses, a national rotavirus vaccination program was predicted to decrease health and economic burden due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Pakistan by ~40%. Vaccination was highly cost-effective in this context. As discussions of implementing the intervention intensify, future studies should address affordability, efficiency, and equity of vaccination introduction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
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