The criterion a problem revisited: Controversies and challenges in defining and measuring psychological trauma

  • Weathers F
  • Keane T
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Abstract

What do we know about resilience in crime victimization? In this article, the authors discuss resilience defined as protective factors (e.g., personality characteristics, biological characteristics, social and cultural factors, and community characteristics); as a process of adaptation (e.g., self-enhancement, positive cognitive appraisals, coping styles, and spirituality), including an iterative perspective on resilience as a cascade of protective processes; and as positive outcomes (e.g., lack of symptoms) following exposure to adverse events. Within each of these definitional frameworks, they consider general conceptual issues pertaining to resilience and then the small body of research that has focused specifically on resilience and some type of crime victimization. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

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