The Critical Cultural Cypher: Remaking Paulo Freire’s Cultural Circles Using Hip Hop Culture

  • Williams A
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Abstract

K-12 education has not changed much in the United States in last 100 years (Cu -ban, 1993), and it still utilizes a model that strives to maintain education’s domi -nant and decidedly middle-class, Eurocentric discourse (Banks, 1993; Murrell, 2002; Sleeter, 1996). This lack of change is stunning when considering the con -stantly evolving landscape of popular culture. One way of rectifying the inadequa -cies of the education system for students of differing cultural backgrounds is to incorporate elements of students’ lived culture in the school curriculum, forming a Culturally Congruent Curriculum (Demmert & Towner, 2003; Gay, 2000; Lad -son-Billings, 1995; McLeod, 1994) that acknowledges, values, and incorporates students’ identities outside of schools. This curriculum could be followed by a Critical Pedagogical framework (Freire, 2003; Kincheloe, 2008; Shor, 1992) that would empower the students, together with the teachers, to challenge marginal -izing social contexts, ideologies, events, organizations, experiences, texts, subject matters, policies, and discourses

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  • A. D. Williams

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