This article surveys a variety of critiques of violence. These include: religious critiques (including Ancient Greek religion, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Confucianism, Taoism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism); philosophical critiques (including Socrates, social contract theorists, and Kant); and political critiques (including modern peace movements; workers movements; civil disobedience; critiques of technology and modern culture; feminism, environmentalism and animal rights, and indigenous peoples' movements). Topics addressed include: the nature and scope of violence; notions of just war; the extent and the limits of the various critiques; how violence affects both the individual and society; modes of action used to reduce violence, such as religious practices, civil disobedience, and political nonviolence. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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