Crossing dendrites of the hypoglossal motoneurons: Possible morphological substrate of coordinated and synchronized tongue movements of the frog, Rana esculenta

  • Bácskai T
  • Veress G
  • Halasi G
 et al. 
  • 5


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 10


    Citations of this article.


Application of different fluorescent tracers to the right and left hypoglossal nerve of the frog revealed the extent of dendrites crossing the midline into the territory of contralateral hypoglossal motoneurons. By using confocal microscopy, a large number of close appositions were detected between hypoglossal motoneurons bilaterally, which formed dendrodendritic and dendrosomatic contacts. The distance between the neighboring profiles suggested close membrane appositions without interposing glial elements. Application of neurobiotin to one hypoglossal nerve resulted in labeling of perikarya exclusively on the ipsilateral side of tracer application, suggesting the absence of dye-coupled connections with contralateral hypoglossal motoneurons. At the ultrastructural level, the dendrodendritic and dendrosomatic contacts did not show any morphological specialization; the long membrane appositions may provide electrotonic interactions between the neighboring profiles. We propose that dendrites of hypoglossal motoneurons that cross the midline subserve one of the morphological substrates of co-activation, synchronization and timing of bilateral activity of tongue muscles during prey-catching behavior of the frog. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Brainstem
  • Hypoglossal
  • Neuronal labeling
  • Prey catching

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Tímea Bácskai

  • Gábor Veress

  • Gábor Halasi

  • Clara Matesz

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free