Sexual concurrency has been associated with HIV infection. Since HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is mostly spread within the context of heterosexual couples, it is necessary that intervention is focused on such couples. We sought to establish the correlates of couple sexual concurrency in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted 1090 gender-matched interviews in 545 couples in a cross-sectional survey. A random sample of fishermen and their spouses from 33 fish-landing beaches along the shores of Lake Victoria in Kisumu were asked to enrol in the study. Couples were separated into different private rooms for simultaneous interviews that documented socioeconomic and behavioural characteristics, and information on number of sexual partnerships in the preceding 6 months and their status. Based on reported concurrency status of the spouses, a couple was categorised as either concurrent when at least one spouse reported a concurrent sexual relationship or non-concurrent. Overall, 32.1% of the men and 6.2% of the women had concurrent sexual relationships in the 6 months preceding the study, resulting in 37.6% of the couples being sexually concurrent. Unmet sexual desire, intra-spousal suspicions of infidelity, male dominance scripts, domestic violence, couples' children and women's age were the correlates of couple sexual concurrency. Unmet sexual desires, inter-spousal infidelity suspicions, male dominance scripts and domestic violence were the main correlates of couple sexual concurrency in these fishing communities.
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