The later fourth and third millennia bc (= laterfifih to earlier third millennium BC Cal) was an important period of change in eastern Europe, which saw the domestication and spread of the horse in the steppe area north of the Black Sea, and complex interactions between these livestock-raising groups and agricultural populations in south-east Europe. The correlation of cultural sequences between the Balkans and the Pontic steppes is crucial to an understanding of these developments. This article provides a basic cultural framework for the period.
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