In this review the current status of truffle cultivation in Europe and outside Europe is reported. While the cultivation of Tuber melanosporum (Périgord black truffle), Tuber aestivum (summer or Burgundy truffle) and Tuber borchii (bianchetto truffle) gave good results, only the Italian white truffle (Tuber magnatum), which is the most expensive, has yet to be successfully cultivated. In future a revolutionary approach to truffle cultivation would be the application of mycelial inoculation techniques for producing Tuber infected plants which will allow to select the fungal strains adapted to specific climatic, edaphic conditions and hosts. The new insights which will be gained by the extensive Tuber genome sequencing programme will also help to improve truffle cultivation techniques.
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