BACKGROUND:During the inflammatory process, chemokine CXCL8 plays a pivotal role in recruitment of human neutrophilic granulocytes. A diversity of sequences similar to CXCL8 was reported in fish, but their evolutionary relationships and functional homology with their human homolog remain unclear.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We screened fish genomes to seek for sequences related to CXCL8. A first lineage was retrieved in all teleosts, while a second CXCL8 lineage was found in zebrafish and carp only. An early inflammatory function for both lineages was indicated by several lines of evidence. The induction of carp CXCL8s, CXCb, and CXC receptor-1 and -2 was analyzed after in vitro stimulation of leukocyte subpopulations and in two in vivo inflammation models. Recombinant proteins of carp CXCL8 proteins were produced and showed significant chemotactic activity for carp leukocytes.
CONCLUSIONS:While both carp CXCL8s appear to be functional homologs of mammalian CXCL8, their different induction requirements and kinetics evoke a gene-specific sub-functionalization.
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