This chapter illustrates what cyber warfare is and how it can impact the life or business on a personal level and explores the national aspect from both the policy and practical levels. The Department of Defense defines cyberspace as the notional environment in which digitized information is communicated over computer networks. The National Military Strategy for Cyberspace Operations defines cyberspace as the domain characterized by the use of electronics and the electromagnetic spectrum to store, modify, and exchange data via networked systems and associated physical infrastructures. Today's critical infrastructure networks are key targets for cyber attack because they have grown to the point where they run the command and control systems, manage the logistics, enable the staff planning and operations, and are the backbone of the intelligence capabilities. More importantly today, most command and control systems, as well as the weapon systems themselves, are connected to the Global Information Grid or have embedded computer chips. Airplanes have become flying routers receiving and sending targeting information constantly. Air Defense and Artillery are guided by computers systems and they shoot smart munitions that adjust their flight based on Global Positioning System updates to guide themselves to the target. The Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance systems gather so much information the challenge is sifting through it to find the critical data. Today's infantry squad has communication gear, Global Positioning System, tracking devices, cameras, and night vision devices. The computer chip is ubiquitous and has become one of the U.S. centers of gravity. It is the strength and could be turned into the weakness if taken away.
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