Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose in aerobic batch culture follows the well-documented diauxic pattern of completely fermenting glucose to ethanol during the first exponential growth phase, followed by an intermediate lag phase and a second exponential growth phase consuming ethanol. In continuous cultures over a range of intermediate dilution rates, the yeast bioreactor exhibits sustained oscillations in all the measured concentrations, such as cell mass, glucose, ethanol, and dissolved oxygen, the amounts of intracellular storage carbohydrates, such as glycogen and trehalose, the fraction of budded cells as well as the culture pH. We present here a structured, unsegregated model for the yeast growth dynamics developed from the 'cybernetic' modeling framework, to simulate the dynamic competition between all the available metabolic pathways. This cybernetic model accurately predicts all the key experimentally observed aspects: (i) in batch cultures, duration of the intermediate lag phase, sequential production and consumption of ethanol, and the dynamics of the gaseous exchange rates of oxygen and carbon dioxide; and (ii) in continuous cultures, the spontaneous generation of oscillations as well as the variations in period and amplitude of oscillations when the dilution rate or agitatin rate are changed.
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