Background. Previous behavioural and neuroimaging studies of emotion processing in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have focused on the use of facial stimuli. To date, however, no studies have examined emotion processing in autism across a broad range of social signals. Method. This study addressed this issue by investigating emotion processing in a group of 23 adults with ASD and 23 age- and gender-matched controls. Recognition of basic emotions (‘ happiness ’, ‘ sadness ’, ‘ anger ’, disgust’ and ‘ fear ’) was assessed from facial, body movement and vocal stimuli. The ability to make social judgements (such as approachability) from facial stimuli was also investigated. Results. Signiﬁcant deﬁcits in emotion recognition were found in the ASD group relative to the control group across all stimulus domains (faces, body movements and voices). These deﬁcits were seen across a range of emotions. The ASD group were also impaired in making social judgements compared to the control group and this correlated with impairments in basic emotion recognition. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that there are signiﬁcant and broad-ranging deﬁcits in emotion processing in ASD present across a range of stimulus domains and in the auditory and visual modality ; they cannot therefore be accounted for simply in terms of impairments in face processing or in the visual modality alone. These results identify a core deﬁcit aﬀecting the processing of a wide range of emotional information in ASD, which contributes to the impairments in social function seen in people with this condition.
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