The frame alignment approach is one of the most influential mobilisation theories. This theory holds that frame alignment is a necessary condition for movement participation. The present study challenges this premise. Instead of treating frame alignment as a precondition for participation, the authors address it as something that should be empirically examined. And rather than distinguishing between either aligned or non-aligned protesters, they study frame alignment as a matter of degree. They do so drawing on protest surveys collected during 29 demonstrations in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The authors answer the following research questions: To what extent are the frames of protest organisers and participants aligned? And are there differences in degrees of alignment across framing tasks, countries and issues? The findings show that many participants are only partially aligned. The highest levels of alignment are found for the diagnostic framing task. The article finds few differences across countries and issues for general alignment levels, but sub-aspects do tend to differ.
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