Each of the DENV serotypes can cause the full spectrum of dengue illness. Epidemiological studies have implicated preexisting heterotypic DENV antibody as a risk factor for more severe disease upon secondary DENV infection. For these reasons, a successful DENV vaccine must protect against all four DENV serotypes. Live attenuated DENV vaccine candidates are the furthest along in development and clinical evaluation. Two live attenuated tetravalent vaccine candidates are in Phase 2 clinical trials in DENV endemic regions. Numerous other vaccine candidates including inactivated whole virus, recombinant subunit protein, DNA and virus-vectored vaccines are also under development. Those DENV vaccine candidates that have been evaluated in preclinical animal models or in clinical trials will be discussed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
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