See, stats, and : https : / / www . researchgate . net / publication / 14649886 Use - dependent representations adult Article Source : PubMed CITATIONS 969 READS 1 , 667 4 , including : Some : Brain Randolph University , Kansas 145 , 651 SEE Garrett . Milliken College 24 , 898 SEE All . Milliken . The . This study was undertaken to document plastic changes in the functional topography of primary motor cortex (Ml) that are generated in motor skill learning in the normal , intact primate . lntracot - tical microstimulation mapping techniques were used to derive detailed maps of the representation of movements in the distal forelimb zone of Ml of squirrel monkeys , before and after behavioral training on two different tasks that differentially encouraged specific sets of forelimb movements . After training on a small - object retrieval task , which required skilled use of the digits , their evoked - movement digit representations ex - panded , whereas their evoked - movement wrist / forearm repre - sentational zones contracted . These changes were progressive and reversible . In a second motor skill exercise , a monkey pronated and supinated the forearm in a key (eyebolt) - turning task . In this case , the representation of the forearm expanded , whereas the digit representational zones contracted . These results show that Ml is alterable by use throughout the life of an animal . These studies also revealed that after digit training there was an areal expansion of dual - response representations , that is , cortical sectors over which stimulation produced move - ments about two or more joints . Movement combinations that were used more frequently after training were selectively mag - nified in their cortical representations . This close correspon - dence between changes in behavioral performance and elec - trophysiologically defined motor representations indicates that a neurophysiological correlate of a motor skill resides in Ml for at least several days after acquisition . The finding that cocon - tracting muscles in the behavior come to be represented to - gether in the cortex argues that , as in sensory cot - tices , tem - poral correlations drive emergent changes in distributed motor cortex representations .
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