Depression in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children: 'True' depression or demoralization?

  • J. B
  • E. M
  • Biederman J
 et al. 
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Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the nature of the association between major depression (MD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining predictors of persistence of MD attending to issues of familiality, adversity and comorbidity. Methods: Four years of follow-up of 76 depressed ADHD children were analyzed using multivariate regression to determine predictors of persistent MD. Results: Bipolar disorder and higher indices of interpersonal problems predicted MD persistence. In contrast, school difficulty and ADHD-associated measures of severity were not associated with persistent MD. Remission from ADHD was also not statistically significantly associated with remission from MD. Conclusions: ADHD and MD had independent and distinct courses, indicating that ADHD-associated MD reflects a depressive disorder and not merely demoralization. Limitations: This study may have reduced power due to stratification of our group of ADHD boys with persistent and remitting MD.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *attention deficit disorder/di [Diagnosis]
  • *depression/di [Diagnosis]
  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Age of Onset
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Depressive Disorder
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Male
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Research Design
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • adolescent
  • article
  • child
  • child psychiatry
  • childhood disease/di [Diagnosis]
  • comorbidity
  • diagnosis
  • disease association
  • epidemiology
  • human
  • major clinical study
  • male
  • mental disease/di [Diagnosis]
  • onset age
  • priority journal
  • remission

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Authors

  • Biederman J.

  • Mick E.

  • J Biederman

  • E Mick

  • S V Faraone

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