Dermal Fillers: Types, Indications, and Complications

  • Sánchez-Carpintero I
  • Candelas D
  • Ruiz-Rodríguez R
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Abstract

There are many types of dermal fillers currently used for cosmetic and medical indications in routine clinical practice. Fillers can be classified as temporary, semipermanent, or permanent depending on the length of time the substance remains in tissue. They can also be classified by the composition of the product. Materials can be based on collagen (bovine, porcine, and human), hyaluronic acid, poly-L-lactic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, polymethal methacrylates, and polyacrylamide gels, among others. Temporary fillers are the products most often used for cosmetic purposes, in particular hyaluronic acid. This is due to the ease of application of fillers based on this substance, the good results obtained, and their safety profile. This review presents an overview of the techniques used for the correct placement of dermal fillers and the most common clinical indications for these procedures. It also covers the nature, properties, and mechanisms of action of the principal temporary, semipermanent, and permanent dermal fillers as well as the indications for each type of material. Finally, we describe the most common complications encountered and their treatment.

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Authors

  • I. Sánchez-Carpintero

  • D. Candelas

  • R. Ruiz-Rodríguez

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