Design strategies in mineralized biological materials

  • Weiner S
  • Addadi L
  • A. A
 et al. 
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Organisms have been producing mineralized skeletons for the past
million years. They have evolved many different strategies for
these materials at almost all hierarchical levels from
Ångstroms to
millimetres. Key components of biological materials are the
macromolecules, which are intimately involved in controlling
growth, shaping and adapting mechanical properties of the mineral
phase to
function. One interesting tendency that we have noted is that
have developed several strategies to produce materials that have
isotropic properties. Much can still be learned from studying the
principles of structure–function relations of biological
Some of this information may also provide new ideas for improved
design of
synthetic materials.

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  • Stephen Weiner

  • Lia Addadi

  • A. Hiltner A.

  • J. J. Cassidy J. J.

  • E. Baer E.

  • S. A. Tyler S. A.

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