Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3 year old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

  • Caspersen I
  • Kvalem H
  • Haugen M
 et al. 
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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children., OBJECTIVES: The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)., METHODS: Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children., RESULTS: Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women., CONCLUSIONS: Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important, toxicokinetic factors appeared to have less predictive impact., Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *Environmental Exposure
  • *Environmental Pollutants/bl [Blood]
  • *Flame Retardants/me [Metabolism]
  • *Hydrocarbons, Brominated/bl [Blood]
  • *Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/bl [Blood]
  • *Pesticides/bl [Blood]
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Demography
  • Diet
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Norway
  • Polybrominated Biphenyls/bl [Blood]
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls/bl [Blood]
  • Pregnancy

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Authors

  • Ida Henriette Caspersen

  • Helen Engelstad Kvalem

  • Margaretha Haugen

  • Anne Lise Brantsaeter

  • Helle Margrete Meltzer

  • Jan Alexander

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