A key element in developing ideas associated with statistical inference involves developing concepts of sampling. The objective of this research was to understand the characteristics of students' constructions of the concept of sample. Sixty-two students in Grades 3, 6, and 9 were interviewed using open-ended questions related to sampling; written responses to a questionnaire were also analyzed. Responses were characterized in relation to the content, structure, and objectives of statistical literacy. Six categories of construction were identified and described in relation to the sophistication of developing concepts of sampling. These categories illustrate helpful and unhelpful foundations for an appropriate understanding of representativeness and hence will help curriculum developers and teachers plan interventions.
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