Cloud manufacturing is emerging as a novel business paradigm for the manufacturing industry, in which dynamically scalable and virtualised resources are provided as consumable services over the Internet. A handful of cloud manufacturing systems are proposed for different business scenarios, most of which fall into one of three deployment modes, i.e. private cloud, community cloud, and public cloud. One of the challenges in the existing solutions is that few of them are capable of adapting to changes in the business environment. In fact, different companies may have different cloud requirements in different business situations; even a company at different business stages may need different cloud modes. Nevertheless, there is limited support on migrating to different cloud modes in existing solutions. This paper proposes a Hybrid Manufacturing Cloud that allows companies to deploy different cloud modes for their periodic business goals. Three typical cloud modes, i.e. private cloud, community cloud and public cloud are supported in the system. Furthermore, it enables companies to set self-defined access rules for each resource so that unauthorised companies will not have access to the resource. This self-managed mechanism gives companies full control of their businesses and boosts their trust with enhanced privacy protection. A unified ontology is developed to enhance semantic interoperability throughout the whole process of service provision in the clouds. A Cloud Management Engine is developed to manage all the user-defined clouds, in which Semantic Web technologies are used as the main toolkit. The feasibility of this approach is verified through a group of companies, each of which has complex access requirements for their resources. In addition, a use case is carried out between customers and service providers. This way, optimal service is delivered through the proposed system.
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