PURPOSE: We examined associations between adherence to components of a diet-exercise intervention and survivors' physical and mental health.METHODS: A randomized controlled trial tested a telephone and mailed print intervention among 641 older, overweight, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Dietary and exercise behaviors were assessed at 14 time points throughout the year-long intervention; health outcomes were examined postintervention.RESULTS: Telephone session attendance had significant indirect relationships with health outcomes through intervention-period exercise and dietary behavior. Attendance showed positive indirect relationships with physical function (??=?0.11, p?0.05), basic and advanced lower extremity function (??=?0.10, p?<?0.05/??=?0.09, p?<?0.05), and mental health (??=?0.05, p?<?0.05), and a negative indirect relationship with body mass index (??=?-0.06, p?<?0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Session attendance is vital in facilitating improvement in health behaviors and attendant outcomes (Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00303875).BACKGROUND: Diet and exercise interventions for cancer survivors result in health benefits; however, few studies have examined health outcomes in relation to adherence.
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