Dietary management in diabetes

  • A. B
  • H. G
  • K. M
 et al. 
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Abstract

Background: Type 1 diabetes is primarily an autoimmune disease and type 2 diabetes is primarily a metabolic condition. However, medical nutrition therapy is an integral part of management for both types of diabetes to improve glycaemic control and reduce the risk of complications. Objective: To outline the principles of dietary management in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and provide strategies to assist in overcoming common difficulties related to diet. Discussion: All people with diabetes should be provided with quality professional education on medical nutrition therapy upon diagnosis, and at regular intervals thereafter. For children and adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes, the challenge is to maintain good glycaemic control while providing adequate energy for growth and development. Modification in dietary advice is required, depending on developmental stage. In type 2 diabetes, the initial challenge is to achieve weight loss of 5-10% body weight, normalise blood glucose and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Specific strategies include a kilojoule controlled diet with reduced saturated fat, trans fat and sodium; moderate protein; and high in dietary fibre and low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Carbohydrates should be spread evenly throughout the day and matched to medication.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *insulin dependent diabetes mellitus/ep [Epidemiol
  • *non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus/ep [Epide
  • Adolescent
  • Australia
  • Australia/ep [Epidemiology]
  • Blood Glucose
  • Body Weight
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Energy Intake
  • Glycemic Index
  • Humans
  • Insulin
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity
  • Obesity
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Preschool
  • Type 1
  • Type 2
  • administration & dosage
  • adolescent
  • article
  • body weight
  • caloric intake
  • carbohydrate diet
  • child
  • complications
  • diet therapy
  • epidemiology
  • fat intake
  • glucose blood level
  • glycemic index
  • human
  • insulin/ad [Drug Administration]
  • middle aged
  • motor activity
  • obesity/co [Complication]
  • patient education
  • preschool child

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Authors

  • Barclay A.

  • Gilbertson H.

  • Marsh K.

  • Smart C.

  • Alan Barclay

  • Heather Gilbertson

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