The catfishes Brachyplatystoma flavicans (n¼49) and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (n¼69) showed comparable low allozyme diversities (He¼0?012 and 0?009–0?028, respectively), but contrasting PCR-RFLP restriction site mitochondrial DNA diversities (three haplotypes: p¼0?034–0?092 and five haplotypes: p¼0?001–0?023, respectively) in the Rio Ichilo and Beni (Bolivia). Genetic homogeneity between samples was high for B. flavicans and lower for P. fasciatum. Based on mitochondrial diversity, both species probably experienced a historic population reduction but at different time scales.
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