This article draws on the experience of disarmament, demobilization and
reintegration (DDR) programs on the African continent. It explains the link between
DDR in Africa and the evolution of post-conflict peacebuilding as envisioned by former
UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, the phases of the DDR process, the
actors involved in the practice of DDR—both within the UN system and outside. Seven
case studies are used to illustrate how DDR programs have been implemented, the les-
sons that have been learned as a result, and the challenges that are yet to be overcome.
A general evaluation of DDR is provided in the conclusion, which taps into discussions
and recommendations emerging from a 2006 conference held on the subject at the Kofi
Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) in Accra, Ghana.
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