Discontinuation of clozapine: A 15-year naturalistic retrospective study of 320 patients

  • Davis M
  • Fuller M
  • Strauss M
 et al. 
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Clozapine is underutilized in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. To understand contributing factors, we analyzed the frequency and causes of clozapine discontinuations that occurred over a 15-year period in a clinical setting.

METHOD: Data were extracted from computerized records and from mandatory termination reports for discontinuation events 1993-2007. The reasons for termination were analyzed.

RESULTS: Over half of the patients (n = 183/320; 57%) had at least one discontinuation (median time 609 days). The two most common causes for discontinuation were non-adherence (35%) and side-effects (28%). Hematological side-effects accounted for 45% of all side-effect associated discontinuations; most such patients remained eligible for clozapine treatment, and a significant fraction remained on clozapine after rechallenge. Central nervous system side-effects accounted for 35% of side-effect induced discontinuations. General factors significantly associated with discontinuation were African American race, older age at initiation of clozapine and less improvement in psychiatric symptoms.

CONCLUSION: In addition to anticipating and addressing causes of non-adherence, psychiatrists should consider clozapine rechallenge in eligible patients and implement measures to mitigate clozapine-associated sedation, seizures, and other side-effects. Future studies should particularly address why African American and older patients may be more likely to discontinue clozapine.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Adherence
  • Antipsychotics
  • Clinical aspects
  • Compliance
  • Epidemiology
  • Schizophrenia

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Authors

  • M. C. Davis

  • M. A. Fuller

  • M. E. Strauss

  • P. E. Konicki

  • G. E. Jaskiw

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