Distribution and abundance of grapsid crabs (Grapsidae) in a mangrove estuary: Effects of sediment characteristics, salinity tolerances, and osmoregulatory ability

  • Frusher S
  • Giddins R
  • Smith III T
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Crabs (Grapsidae, Sesarma) are the dominant macrofaunal group of mangrove forest soils in northern Australia. Little is known about the ecology of these crabs or the factors that influence their distribution in mangrove forests. Pitfall traps were used to sample grapsid crabs in the Murray River estuary in north Queensland. Sampling was conducted at five sites along a salinity gradient from 35 parts-per-thousand at the river mouth. At each site, trapping was done in both low and high intertidal forests. We characterized the sediments at each site by measuring percent sand, silt, clay and organic matter, Eh, pH, and soil pore-water salinity. Four species of grapsids dominated the crab fauna along the Murray River (Sesarma semperi-longicristatum, S. messa, S. brevicristatum, and S. brevipes). Distinct zonation patterns were found along the salinty gradient and between high and low intertidal forests. S. messa was dominant in high intertidal, downstream forests, high and low intertidal forests in the middle to downstream portion of the river, and in low intertidal forests in the central reach of the river. S. brevipes was dominant in both low and high intertidal zone forests at low salinity upstream sites. S. brevicristatum was most abundant in the central reaches of the river and only in the high intertidal zone. S. semperi-longicristatum was found only in the low intertidal zone, downstream forest. Subsequently, tests of salinity tolerances of these crabs were carried out in the laboratory. These indicated very wide tolerances over salinities from completely fresh to hypersaline (60 parts-per-thousand). The osmoregulatory abilities of the crabs were also found to vary. However, neither their salinity tolerance nor osmoregulatory ability adequately explain the zonation patterns we measured in the field. For example, S. brevicristatum had the most restricted distribution, but it had the second broadest salinity tolerance and osmoregulatory ability. Sediment characteristics explained a significant amount of the variation in abundance for two of the crab species. Pore-water salinity provided no explanatory power for any of the species. Individual species abundances are probably influenced by additional factors such as interspecific competition and predation.

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  • Stewart D. Frusher

  • Raymond L. Giddins

  • Thomas J. Smith III

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