Duplication and divergence of zebrafish CRALBP genes uncovers novel role for RPE- and m??ller-CRALBP in cone vision

  • Boppana S
  • Bugg T
  • Chung S
 et al. 
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Abstract

Carotenoids in grapes of three Port winemaking cultivars were investigated. Extracts were obtained with n-hexane/diethyl ether mixtures (0/100; 20/80; 50/50; 100/0) and analyzed by normal and reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Selection and identification of peaks were based on spectroscopic characteristics - lambda(max), (%III/II) and k' values, leading to 28 probable carotenoids. Using pure standards, it was possible to identify seven compounds previously described (neochrome, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, flavoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, and beta-carotene), one more type of neochrome reported here, for the first time, and in addition, two geometrical isomers of lutein and beta-carotene were tentatively described. The remaining 17 need to be further identified. High polarity solvent mixtures lead to qualitatively richer chromatograms. Reversed-phase separations allowed the detection of flavoxanthin and the possible geometrical isomer(s) of beta-carotene. Under normal phase, zeaxanthin was detected, and neochromes were better separated from neoxanthin. Extraction with 50/50 n-hexane/diethyl ether mixtures and reversed-phase conditions was the best combination for analysis of the carotenoids, known as precursors of compounds with high aroma impact in wines.

Author-supplied keywords

  • ACO
  • Abscisic Acid
  • Abscisic Acid: biosynthesis
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Apocarotenoid
  • Astrocytes
  • Biomimetic
  • Caratenoid identification
  • Carotenoid
  • Carotenoid oxygenase
  • Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP)
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Dioxygenase
  • Dioxygenases
  • Dioxygenases: genetics
  • Drosophila
  • Infection
  • Isoflavone
  • Metalloenzyme
  • Model chemistry
  • Models
  • Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis
  • Myelin
  • Oligodendrocytes
  • Optic nerve
  • Oxidative stress
  • Plant Proteins
  • Plant Proteins: chemistry
  • Plant Proteins: genetics
  • Protein Structure
  • RPE65
  • Resistance
  • Retina
  • Retinoids
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Site-Directed
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Tertiary
  • VP14
  • Wine grapes
  • Zea mays
  • Zea mays: enzymology
  • Zea mays: genetics
  • glial fibrillary acidic protein
  • mu
  • photoreceptor cells
  • rhodopsin
  • vision
  • visual cycle
  • vitamin a

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Authors

  • Sridhar Boppana

  • Timothy D H Bugg

  • Stacey Chung

  • Mikel Ghelfi

  • Jeffrey Atkinson

  • Robert Parker

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