We describe a genome-wide characterization of mRNA transcript levels in yeast grown on the fatty acid oleate, determined using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). Comparison of this SAGE library with that reported for glucose grown cells revealed the dramatic adaptive response of yeast to a change in carbon source. A major fraction (>20%) of the 15,000 mRNA molecules in a yeast cell comprised differentially expressed transcripts, which were derived from only 2% of the total number of approximately 6300 yeast genes. Most of the mRNAs that were differentially expressed code for enzymes or for other proteins participating in metabolism (e.g., metabolite transporters). In oleate-grown cells, this was exemplified by the huge increase of mRNAs encoding the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes required for degradation of fatty acids. The data provide evidence for the existence of redox shuttles across organellar membranes that involve peroxisomal, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial enzymes. We also analyzed the mRNA profile of a mutant strain with deletions of the PIP2 and OAF1 genes, encoding transcription factors required for induction of genes encoding peroxisomal proteins. Induction of genes under the immediate control of these factors was abolished; other genes were up-regulated, indicating an adaptive response to the changed metabolism imposed by the genetic impairment. We describe a statistical method for analysis of data obtained by SAGE.
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