This review examines the conservation, risk, productivity, viability and acceptability of range management technology as it relates to sustaining rangeland ecosystems specifically in arid and semi-arid climates. The efficiency, cost effectiveness and risk with which rainfall is converted into plant production, and eventually gross farming income, without deterioration of natural resources form the essence of sustainability of rangeland ecosystems in these areas. Range and soil degradation can dramatically influence soil water balance, nutrient cycling, soil loss, production and the economics of a farm unit. Management for long-term sustainability often requires sacrifice of short-term welfare. With respect to deterioration and loss of productivity of natural vegetation, a co-ordinated approach is needed towards establishing a comprehensive inventory of the condition of national vegetation resources on a geographically and scientifically sound basis.
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