Skip to content
Journal article

Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene

Marean C, Bar-Matthews M, Bernatchez J, Fisher E, Goldberg P, Herries A, Jacobs Z, Jerardino A, Karkanas P, Minichillo T, Nilssen P, Thompson E, Watts I, Williams H ...see all

Nature, vol. 449 (2007) pp. 905-908

  • 28


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • N/A


    Citations of this article.
  • N/A


    ScienceDirect users who have downloaded this article.
Sign in to save reference


Genetic and anatomical evidence suggests that Homo sapiens arose in Africa between 200 and 100 thousand years (kyr) ago, and recent evidence indicates symbolic behaviour may have appeared ~135–75 kyr ago. From 195–130 kyr ago, the world was in a fluctuating but predominantly glacial stage (marine isotope stage MIS6); much of Africa was cooler and drier, and dated archaeological sites are rare. Here we show that by ~164 kyr ago (±12 kyr) at Pinnacle Point (on the south coast of South Africa) humans expanded their diet to include marine resources, perhaps as a response to these harsh environmental conditions. The earliest previous evidence for human use of marine resources and coastal habitats was dated to ~125 kyr ago. Coincident with this diet and habitat expansion is an early use and modification of pigment, probably for symbolic behaviour, as well as the production of bladelet stone tool technology, previously dated to post-70 kyr ago. Shellfish may have been crucial to the survival of these early humans as they expanded their home ranges to include coastlines and followed the shifting position of the coast when sea level fluctuated over the length of MIS6.

Author-supplied keywords

  • cave
  • homo-sapiens
  • modern human-behavior
  • ochre
  • origin
  • sea
  • shell beads
  • stone-age
  • symbolism

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in


  • C W Marean

  • M Bar-Matthews

  • J Bernatchez

  • E Fisher

  • P Goldberg

  • A I R Herries

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below