Culex pipiens Linnaeus is represented by two forms: the form molestus which is autogenous, stenagamous and has no reproductive diapause, and the form pipiens which is anautogenous, eurygamous and diapauses. The ecological, physiological and geographical variations in the larval siphonal index of C. pipiens (the ratio of the length of the siphon to its width at the base) was investigated using both original measurements and previously published data. In all, data were used from 259 collections from open water bodies (marshes, ditches, holes, barrels, etc.) and underground waters (house basements) in areas of Europe, Asia and part of Africa. Autogeny was studied in some cases by dissection of females. In C. pipiens the mean siphonal index was strongly correlated with ecology (water body type) and adult physiology (autogeny). In spite of high geographical and individual variation, which makes the identification of individual larvae difficult, the mean siphonal index can be used with certainty for the differentiation of populations of the two forms of C. pipiens.
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