Abstract: Renal disease and disorders of fluid homeostasis are common in captive amphibians. Veterinarians treating amphibian patients should be aware of important physiological differences between Amphibia and other vertebrates encountered in the exotic animal veterinary practice. Of particular clinical importance are the role of the integument in osmoregulation and the diversity of physiological adaptations that enables the Amphibia to inhabit a variety of natural environments. This article reviews physiological concepts and provides an overview of common disorders of the amphibian urinary tract and fluid balance, including the common clinical presentation of subcutaneous (lymph sac) edema in anurans (frogs and toads). © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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